|Rhetoric and Argumentation - Historical Aspect||
Civil Law - 9. semester
Commercial Law - 9. semester
Constitutional-Administrative - 9. semester
Criminal Law - 9. semester
International Law - 9. semester
The European Union Law - 9. semester
|Lecturer in charge||Consultations||Location|
|prof. dr. sc. Ivana Jaramaz-Reskušić||
|Ćirilometodska 4, room 40|
|Vesna Radovčić; Pravni aspekti u učenjima antičke retorike; Pravni fakultet u Zagrebu (2004)|
|Miroslav Beker; Kratka povijest antičke retorike: s odabranim ulomcima iz antičkih tekstova; ArTresor naklada (1997)|
|Sreten Petrović; Retorika: Teorijsko i istorijsko razmatranje; Gradina (1975)|
|Matej Hriberšek; Antologija antičnega govorništva: Lisija, Izokrat, Demosten, Ciceron, Evmenij; Študentska Založba (2001), str. 245-314|
|George A. Kennedy; Classical rhetoric and its christian and secular tradition from sncient to modern times; The University of North Carolina Press (1999)|
|George A. Kennedy; The Art of Rhetoric in the Roman World 300 B.C. - A.D. 300; Princeton University Press (1972)|
|Aristotel; Retorika; Naprijed (1989), str. XI-XXXVII|
|M. T. Ciceron; O govorniku; Matica hrvatska (2002), str. 5-25|
|M. F. Kvintilijan; Obrazovanje govornika; Veselin Masleša (1985), str. 5-34|
|Manfred Fuhrmann; Die antike Rhetorik; Artemis + Winkler (2003)|
|Gert Ueding, Bernd Steinbrink; Grundrisz der Rhetorik: Geschichte - Technik - Methode; Metzler, J B (2011)|
|M. L. Clarke; Rhetoric at Rome: A Historical Survey; Cohen and West (1953)|
|M. T. Cicero; Murder Trials; Penguin Books (1986)|
|M. T. Cicero; Selected political speeches of Cicero; Penguin Books (1986)|
Since the indisputable influence of rhetoric (as an independent, conditionally put scientific discipline of oratory) on Roman law, as well as on the law of medieval and modern age is generally accepted in science, the subject-matter of this elective subject is the presentation of rhetoric as a skill or art (Greek techne, Latin ars) of persuasion by public speaking in an appropriate manner, and to the determination of the scope and manner of influences of original (ancient) rhetorical teaching, or more precisely, the most important segments of their legal level, the development of law and jurisprudence. Therefore the curriculum consists of two parts:
I The outline of the historical development of rhetoric, emphasising the logical (argumentative) level
II The outline of the system of ancient rhetoric
Within the first part, the subject-matter is presented as follows:
1. Emergence and systematic building of rhetoric in ancient Greece
Beginnings of rhetoric in Sicily in the first half of the 5th century BC (rhetors Tisius and Korax in Syracuse); transfer to Atica in the second half of the 5th century BC /traditional, conceptual and technical rhetoric); further development in the sophist surrounding (Protagoras, Gorgias, Isocratus). The scope and character of the presented subject-matter (two basic trends in rhetoric; success above all; truth as the main aim and ideal of rhetoric).
Plato s polemical attitude towards the determination of rhetoric in his time. The criticism of the sophist oratory practice and theory (in the dialogues Sophist, Protagoras, Gorgias and Phaedrus). The attempt to establish new rhetoric as a science of truthful speaking or espistema in Plato?s meaning (in the dialogue Phaedrus).
Aristotle s tendency to connect the sophist refinement with Plato s emphasis on rhetoric in the service of the truth. Aristotle?s systematic writing Rhetoric is an attempt to establish rhetoric as a special skill similar to dialectics. Aristotles interpretation of the term techne. Aristotles logical writing (under the collective title Organon) and understanding of dialectics as a logic of lower order (logica minor). Subordinate status of the system presented in Rhetoric (proofs, style, order) in his concept of rhetoric as a branch of dialectics. Making logical (dialectic) means of persuasion pivotal (with the comparative usage of the means of psychological and ethical-psychological nature) among the rhetorical, so-called technical proofs. The determination of the place and role of strictly legal, judicial evidence (so-called non-technical proof).
The rhetorical textbook by Hermagoras (2nd - 1st ct. BC) - addition and correction of Aristotles rhetorical system. Emphasis on oratory in court and logical means of persuasion; the first systematic analysis (classification) of typical moot questions (Greek stazeis; Latin status). The concept of status as the central argumentation point; selection of arguments according to different status types - the beginning of the development of the term of relevant evidence. Complete neglect of strictly legal evidence.
2. Reception of rhetoric in republican Rome and its development in the Empire era
Reception of Hermagoras rhetoric system in the first Roman rhetorical works; Rhetorica ad Herrenium by an unknown author and De invention by young Cicero (both from the beginning of the 1st ct. BC)
Ciceros rhetorical works as the synthesis of Aristotle s and Hermagoras rhetorical systems. Cicero s development as a theoretician of rhetoric: focus on the technical aspect of oratory in De inventione; emphasising philosophical (ethical), psychological and other aspects of oratory in De oratore and Orator; emphasising once again the logical level in Topica. Classifications and theoretical analysis of typical moot questions (status) in aforementioned works.
Rhetorical works in the imperial era and the analysis (without significant innovations) of the argumentative issues. Quintilian s extensive rhetorical-pedagogical work Institution oratoria (the end of the 1st ct. BC) as an attempt to rely on Roman law while making the concept of moot questions (probation inartificiales v. probationes artificiales). So-called rhetores Latini minores (2nd - 4th ct.) as mere transmitters of Cicero s and Quintilian s rhetorical teaching on argumentation. Greek rhetor Hermogen from Tars (2nd ct.) and the elaboration of Hermagoras teaching of statuses (the innovation is the teaching of so-called capitula).
3. Greek and Latin rhetoric in Middle Ages
The importance of rhetoric in the education of upper members of medieval society: maintenance of rhetorical i.e. rhetorical-dialectic tradition in late Byzantine and medieval didactic-encyclopaedic writing (Martian Capela, Boethius, Isidor of Seville); acceptance of the distinction between technical and non-technical evidence in Quintilian s terminological variant (probationes artificiales and probationes inartificiales).
Reciprocal influence of rhetoric, dialectics and procedural legal science in the sphere of the argumentation study during Renaissance and late Middle Ages; Classicist rhetoric (17th - 18th ct.) and suppression of the rhetoric-dialectic tradition under the influence of the Cartesian teaching in philosophy (Descartes, Hobbes, Locke, Vico, Hume, Kant); main European discussions on rhetoric in the 18th century (Ward, Sheridan, Lawson, Smith, Cambell, Blair, Whately) and the first American books on rhetoric.
4. Rhetoric and modern age
Rhetorical revival as an attempt to revive the rhetorical studies in the 20th century (manifesto: New Rhetorics from 1967), due to the need to live in the most rhetorical of all times; the emergence of the new rhetoric school (Richards, Burk, Perelman, Olbrechts-Tytec) and its development of the new, neo-classical rhetorical theory; Perelman s attempt to establish a general argumentation theory on the traditions of ancient rhetoric i.e. topics (Aristotle s), distinguishing between argumentation and formal evidence (arguments: quantitative, qualitative and those that help to realise the effect). Critical theories of the 20th century (semiotics, structuralism, Marxism, Anglo-American new criticism, new historicism).
The second part of the program provides an overview of the rhetorical system - both on the theoretical level contained in the most important rhetorical works (Aristotle, Cicero, Quintilian), and on the practical level, contained primarily in individual (primarily Cicero s) speeches in court (In Verrem; Pro Cluention; Pro Sex; Roscius Amerino; Pro Murena and others), according to the following order:
1. Tasks of orators (officia oratoris) i.e. stages of the speech preparation: inventio - dispositio (ordo naturalis and ordo articialis) - elocutio (aptum or decorum; latinitas; perspicuitas; genera dicendi- memoria - pronuntiatio actio
2. Subject of the speech (materia; intellectio) and types of oratory (genus deliberativum - genus demonstrativum - genusiudicale)
3. Parts of the speech (partes orationis): exordium (proemium or principium; insinuatio) - narratio (propositio; digressio) - probatio (or argumentatio) - confirmatio and confutatio - peroratio (enumeratio; delectare, movere)
4. Types of arguments (probationes inartificiales and probationes artificiales) and their origins (loci or topoi/ a persona and loci a re)
5. Functional effects of the speech: docere and probare; delectare and conciliare; movere and concitare
6. Style of oratory or types of oratory ornaments: in individual words (ornatus in verbius singulis) - antiquitas, fiction and verbum translatum; in sentences (ornatus in verbis coniunctis) - figurae verborum, figurae sententiae, compositio
7. Exercise of oratory (exercitatio)
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